1. Juergen Schulz, "Jacopo de'Barbari's View of Venice: Map Making, City Views, and Moralized Geography Before the Year 1500," Art Bulletin 60 (1978), 456.

2. J. B. Harley, "Maps, Knowledge and Power," in The History of Cartography, ed. J. B. Harley and David Woodward. Vol. I: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean (Chicago: 1987), 277.

3. Denis Cosgrove, "Mapping New Worlds: Culture and Cartography in Sixteenth-Century Venice," Imago Mundi 44 (1992), 63.

4. Book I, Cosgrove's translation:

Chorography therefore concentrates more on the quality of places than on their quantity or scale, aware that it should use all means to sketch the true form or likeness of places and not so much their correspondence, measure or disposition amongst themselves or with the heavens or with the whole of the world (Cosgrove, "Mapping New Worlds," 66).

5. In the collection of the Hispanic Society of America.

6. Edward Luther Stevenson, Portolan Charts: Their Origin and Characteristics, with a Descriptive List of those Belonging to the Hispanic Society of America (New York: 1911), 21-22.

7. Stevenson, Portolan Charts , 24.

8. Cosgrove, "Mapping New Worlds," 69, 75-81. Elizabeth Rodini, "`Translatio Sancti Marci': Displaying the Levant in Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Venice," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Chicago, 1995), chapter 2, also discusses the "mapping culture" in Venice, but from the standpoint of map reading as promoting certain kinds of pictorial literacy.

9. An excellent description of the de'Barbari map may be found in Schulz, "Jacopo de' Barbari's View of Venice." The first state of the map was reprinted in facsimile in G. Mazzariol and T. Pignatti, La pianta prospettica di Venezia del 1500 (Venice: 1963); I have consulted that facsimile in the Biblioteca Correr, as well as the variant second state of the map in the possession of the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin.

10. Schulz, "Jacopo de'Barbari's View of Venice," 437-39, notes that the map is not entirely consistent in angle of view, and has more errors and omissions than is commonly supposed, but it is still more accurate than other period maps by several orders of magnitude. See Juergen Schulz, The Printed Plans and Panoramic Views of Venice (1486-1797) (Venice: 1970) for a discussion of other maps of the period.

11. I reached this figure by taking the ten bridges known to exist as of 1400, but not shown on the map, as a percentage of the total of 66 bridges known to exist as of the same date. Giuliana Mazzi, "Note per una definizione della funzione viaria di Venezia," Archivio veneto, 5th ser. 104/99 (1973), 5-30, provides a summary, by parish and canal, of bridges with their approximate construction dates up through 1400. Neither the "missing" bridges nor the areas blocked to view on the de'Barbari map are concentrated in any particular area, so it seems a safe conclusion that the percentage of missing bridges is approximately equal to the percentage of missing area in general.

12. The compositional difficulties are discussed in chapter IV.

13. Schulz, The Printed Plans, 21, cites P.J. Karlstrom, in Venice Panorama: An Exhibition of Views in Venice (Los Angeles, 1969), 14, as suggesting that each individual viewpoint produces its own continuum of projection from straight-down--near the tower or other viewing point--to face-on, at a distance from the tower.

14. Schulz, "Jacopo de Barbari's View of Venice," 432, 436-39.

15. Schulz, The Printed Plans, passim. In the catalog portion of this volume, Schulz implicitly provides a tree of derivations.

16. Benedetto Bordone's map of 1534 is an exception; it shows six bridges along the Riva degli Schiavone, two more in the middle of the Arsenale, and two on the Dorsoduro's Zattere, but no bridge across the Rialto.

17. The horizontal exception is the 1535 map of Giovanni Andrea Vavassore (Schulz, Printed Plans, cat. 5); the view not oriented toward the north is by G. Franco, as published on the title page of Habiti d'huomeni et donne venetiane in 1610. This last, placing the west-north-west at the top, encloses the islands within a circular frame (Biadene, Piante e vedute, cat. 25).

18. Denis Cosgrove, "Venice, the Veneto and Sixteenth-century Landscape," in Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape, ed. Denis Cosgrove (London, 1984), 113.

19. Giocondo Cassini, Piante e vedute prospettiche di Venezia (1479-1855) (Venice: 1982).

20. Most notably the Savii alle Acque, begun in 1501; the Esecutori alle Acque, dating from 1531; and the Magistrati ai Beni Inculti, from 1556 (Denis Cosgrove, "Platonism and Practicality: Hydrology, Engineering and Landscape in Sixteenth-century Venice," in Water, Engineering and Landscape, ed. Denis Cosgrove and Geoff Petts [London: 1990], 39).

21. That cartographic literacy among both patricians and merchants was expected may be seen from the decorations both at the Rialto, where a mappamundo was placed in the merchant's loggia as early as 1324 (Rodini, "Translatio Sancti Marci," 67, note 30) and in the Palazzo Ducale, where the decoration for the Sala di Scudo included maps of Asia, and where the commission for the decoration of the Sala di Senato after the 1576 fire included a proposed 31-foot long map of the terraferma, later altered to a six-map set of Venetian provinces and the mainland empire as a whole (Cosgrove, "Mapping New Worlds," 69, 74).

22. Denis Cosgrove, "The Geometry of Landscape: Practical and Speculative Arts in Sixteenth-century Venetian Land Territories," in The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments, ed. Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels (Cambridge: 1988), 254-59; Cosgrove, "Mapping New Worlds," 70-71; Cosgrove, "Platonism and Practicality," 38-44.

23. Cosgrove, "Mapping New Worlds," 83.